Ethics of publication


The Editorial Board and Editor-in-Chief of scientific journal «Vestnik Universiteta»  commits to the internationally accepted principles of publication ethics expressed in the recommendations of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and the Ethical Code of Academic Periodicals and takes into account the valuable experience of reputable international journals and publishers.

To avoid any unfair practices in publishing activities (plagiarism, presenting false information, etc.) and to ensure a high quality of scientific publications and public recognition of the author’s scientific results, each member of the Editorial Board, publishers, authors, reviewers and institutions involved in the publishing process shall adhere to ethical standards, rules and regulations and take any reasonable steps to prevent their violations. Compliance with these ethical guidelines by all the parties ensures authors’ intellectual property rights, improves the quality of the Journal and excludes a possible misuse of copyright material in the interests of particular individuals.

Editors of the journal reserve the right to reject the work from publication in case of revealing any such malpractices.


Key terms used in the given provision:

Publication ethics is a system of professional conduct standards in relations between authors, reviewers, editors, publishers and readers when creating, disseminating and using scientific publications.

The Author is a person or a group of persons (group of authors) who produce a manuscript that contains the results of their scientific research.

The Editor-in-Chief is a person who heads the Editorial Board and makes final decisions concerning production and publication of the Journal.

The Publisher is a legal entity or a natural person responsible for publication.

The Paper is an author’s finished and published work.

Plagiarism is a wrongful appropriation of another author’s scientific or artistic work, ideas, discoveries or inventions. Plagiarism may be a violation of copyright law and patent law and, as such, can entail legal liability.

The Editor is a representative of the research journal or the publisher responsible for selecting and preparing materials for publication and encouraging communication between authors and readers of scientific papers.

The Editorial Board is an advisory body consisting of competent persons who assist the Editor-in-Chief in selecting, preparing and evaluating manuscripts.

The Reviewer is an expert acting on behalf of the research journal or the publisher and providing scientific evaluation of authors’ works in order to consider their publishing.

The Manuscript is an author’s work submitted for publication in the journal.

The Reader is any person who has familiarized themselves with the published materials.


Duties of Reviewers:


– Peer review assists the Editorial Board in making editorial decisions and through the editorial communications with the author may also assist the author in improving the paper.

– Any selected referee who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editorial board and excuse himself from the review process.

– Any manuscripts received for review must be treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except as authorized by the Editorial Board.

– Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is inappropriate. Referees should express their views clearly with supporting arguments.

– Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors. Any statement that an observation, derivation, or argument had been previously reported should be accompanied by the relevant citation. A reviewer should also call to the editor’s attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published paper of which they have personal knowledge.

– Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviewers should not consider manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers.

– Reviewers shall know that the manuscripts they receive are the intellectual property of authors and are not to be disclosed. Confidentiality may only be breached if the reviewer declares unreliability or falsification of the information in the manuscript.

– Reviewers shall inform the Editor-in-Chief about any substantial or partial similarity of the manuscript under consideration and any other work, as well as the absence of references to statements, conclusions or arguments which have been previously published in the papers of this or another author.

– The Reviewer shall note the relevant published works that are not quoted (in the paper).

– Reviewers’ comments and suggestions shall be objective and essential, aimed at improving the scholarly value of the manuscript.

– Reviewers shall make decisions basing on particular facts and justify them.

– Reviewers are not allowed to make copies of the manuscript for personal use.

– Reviewers cannot take advantage of their awareness of the manuscript content until its publication.

– Reviewers shall request the Editor to exclude them from the reviewing process in case they do not possess the required expertise, or cannot be objective, as in case of competing interests with any of the authors or institutions.

– The manuscript review is confidential. Only the Editor-in-Chief know the name of the reviewer; this information shall not be disclosed.


Duties of Authors:


– Authors of reports of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the paper. A paper should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and are unacceptable.

– The authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works, and if the authors have used the work and/or words of others that this has been appropriately cited or quoted.

– An author should not in general publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one journal or primary publication. Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable.

– Proper acknowledgment of the work of others must always be given. Authors should cite publications that have been influential in determining the nature of the reported work.

– Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study. All those who have made significant contributions should be listed as co-authors. Where there are others who have participated in certain substantive aspects of the research project, they should be acknowledged or listed as contributors.

– The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate co-authors and no inappropriate co-authors are included on the paper, and that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.

– All authors should disclose in their manuscript any financial or other substantive conflict of interest that might be construed to influence the results or interpretation of their manuscript. All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed.

– When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author’s obligation to promptly notify the journal editor or publisher and cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the paper.

– Authors shall adhere to ethical principles, when criticizing or commenting a third-party research.

– Authors shall respect the work of the Editorial Board and reviewers and eliminate the indicated inaccuracies or justify them.

– Authors shall submit and prepare their manuscripts in compliance with the “Vestnik Universiteta” standards.


Duties of Publishers:

– Encourage the Editorial Board, the editorial and publishing group, reviewers and authors to fulfill ethical obligations in compliance with these requirements.

– Assist the Editorial Board of the “Vestnik Universiteta” in considering claims to ethical aspects of the published materials and promote interaction with other journals and/or publishers, if it favors the editors to perform their duties.

– Ensure confidentiality of the submitted manuscript and any information until its publishing.

– Recognize the fact that the activities of the “Vestnik Universiteta” are noncommercial, without any profit motives.

– Publish corrections, clarifications, retractions and apologies when needed.

– Entitle the Editorial Board to reject publications containing plagiarism and false data.

– Have a right to reject the manuscript or require its revision, if it does not comply with the standards of the “Vestnik Universiteta”.

– Make the manuscript, accepted for publication, available to the public on the website; with copyright holders retaining their rights.

– Publish information about research funding, if the author gives such information.

– Take measures to correct factual, grammatical, stylistic and any other errors when such are detected.

– Discuss all editor’s alterations in the manuscript with the author to get their approval.

– Publish the “Vestnik Universiteta” on a timely basis.


Duties of  Editor-in-Chief:

– When deciding on publication, the Editor-in-Chief shall be guided by the validity and scientific significance of the manuscript.

– The Editor-in-Chief shall evaluate the intellectual content of the manuscript regardless of race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, religious beliefs, origin, citizenship, social status or political preferences of the author.

– Unpublished data from the submitted manuscripts shall not be used in personal interests or passed to a third party without the author’s written consent. The information or ideas obtained in the course of editing and related to possible advantages shall stay confidential and not be used for personal benefit.

– The Editor-in-Chief shall not allow the information to be published if there are sufficient grounds to believe that it is plagiarism.

– The Editor-in-Chief shall:

  • continuously improve the “Vestnik Universiteta”;
  • follow the principle of freedom of opinion;
  • strive to meet the needs of the readers and authors of the “Vestnik Universiteta”;
  • eliminate the influence of business or political interests on decision-making when publishing materials;
  • decide on the publication of materials according to the following main criteria: appropriateness of the manuscript for the “Vestnik Universiteta”; relevance, novelty and scientific significance of the submitted manuscript; clarity; reliability of results and completeness of conclusions. A decision on publication is made on the basis of the quality of the research and its relevance;
  • take all reasonable steps to provide a high quality of the published materials and protect the confidentiality of personal information.
  • consider recommendations of reviewers when making a final decision on publishing the manuscript. The responsibility for a decision on publication is entirely borne by the Editorial Board of the “Vestnik Universiteta”;
  • justify decisions regarding acceptance or rejection of the manuscript;
  • allow the author of the reviewed material to substantiate their research viewpoint;
  • not revoke the decision on publication made by the previous Board, if the list of the Editorial Board members has been updated.

– The Editor-in-Chief, together with the Publisher, shall not leave unanswered the complaints regarding the peer-reviewed manuscripts or published materials; they also shall detect conflicts and take all necessary measures to restore the rights that have been infringed.


Conflict of interest

To avoid any breach of publication ethics, it is crucial to eliminate any conflicts of interest of all the parties involved in publishing. Conflicts of interest arise when authors, reviewers or members of the editorial board have financial, scientific or personal relations that may influence their actions. Such relations are known as dual commitments, competing interests or competing loyalties.

In order to prevent conflicts of interest and in accordance with the ethical standards adopted by the “Vestnik Universiteta”, each party shall bear the following responsibilities.

The Editor shall:

– pass the manuscript for consideration to another Editorial Board member if the initially appointed reviewer has a conflict of interest with the author of the manuscript;

– ask that all the parties involved in publishing report a potential conflict of interest;

– make decisions to publish the information from the letter of the author concerning scientific and / or financial conflicts of interest if it is not confidential and may affect the published work evaluation by readers or academia;

– publish corrections if a conflict of interest arose after the paper was published.

The Author shall:

– indicate his employer and the source of research funding;

– enumerate in the accompanying letter of the known and potential sources conflict of interest.

The Reviewer shall:

– inform the Editor-in-Chief about conflicts of interest (dual commitments, competing interests) and decline to review the manuscript.


Violations of Publication Ethics

If publication ethics is breached by the editor, authors or reviewers, a mandatory investigation is required. This applies to both published and unpublished materials. The Editorial Board shall seek clarification, without involving those who may have a conflict of interest with any of the parties.

Editors of “Vestnik universitet”a seek to uphold academic integrity and to protect authors’ moral rights. We take all cases of plagiarism very seriously being aware of the potential impact an allegation of plagiarism can have on a researcher’s career. Therefore, we have procedures in place to deal with alleged cases of plagiarism.

In order for us to take an unbiased approach, we investigate each case thoroughly, seeking clarification from all affected parties.

If we are approached by a third party with an allegation of plagiarism, we would always seek a response from the original author(s) or copyright holder(s) before we decide on a course of action. We will not be influenced by other parties and will form our decisions in an unbiased and objective manner.

Editors are not obliged to discuss individual cases of alleged plagiarism with third parties. We reserve the right not to proceed with a case if the complainant presents a false name or affiliation or acts in an inappropriate or threatening manner towards editorial staff.

Editorial board is not obliged to pass on discussion of cases of alleged plagiarism of persons who have no direct relation to it.


Editorial policy of “Bulletin of the University” forbids:

  1. Self plagiarism

Our requirement is that all authors sign a copyright form that clearly states that their submitted work has not been published before. If elements of a work have been previously published in another publication, including an earlier “Vestnik Universiteta” publication, the author is required to acknowledge the earlier work and indicate how the subsequent work differs and builds upon the research and conclusions contained in the previous work. Verbatim copying of an author’s own work and paraphrasing is not acceptable and we recommend that research should only be reused to support new conclusions.

  1. Verbatim copying of more than 10 per cent of another person’s work without acknowledgement, references or the use of quotation marks.

Improper paraphrasing of another person’s work is where more than one sentence within a paragraph or section of text has been changed or sentences have been rearranged without appropriate attribution. Significant improper paraphrasing (more than 10 per cent of a work) without appropriate attribution is treated as seriously as verbatim copying.

  1. Re-use of elements of another person’s work, for example a figure, table or paragraph without acknowledgement, references or the use of quotation marks.

It is incumbent on the author to obtain the necessary permission to reuse elements of another person’s work from the copyright holder.